Retirement plans offer significant tax advantages to small business owners. Here is an overview of several types of plans available to small businesses, their features and restrictions.
SEP- Simplified Employee Pension Plan– Contributions are made by the employer only, up to the lesser of 25% of employee’s compensation or $66,000 for 2023. Employees are immediately 100% vested. No loans are permitted. Withdrawals permitted anytime. Primary advantage is how simple a SEP is to administer. No need for annual IRS filing. Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs) must be withdrawn by April 1 of the year you reach age 73.
SIMPLE IRA Plans– Employees may defer income and make salary contributions. For 2023, employees may contribute up to $15,500, $19,000 if age 50 or older. If employee contributes, employers must match employee’s contribution up to 3% of his compensation. If employee doesn’t contribute, employers must make a contribution of 2% of employee’s compensation. Employees are immediately 100% vested in employer’s contribution. Loans are not permitted. Withdrawals permitted anytime. No need for annual IRS filing. RMDs must be withdrawn by April 1 of the year you reach age 73.
401(k) Plans– Employees may make elective deferrals up to $22,500 in 2023, $30,000 if age 50 or older. Employer may make contributions to employee’s accounts. Total employer and employee contributions are limited to lesser of 100% of employee’s compensation or $66,000 in 2023, $73,500 if age 50 or older. Employees vest per plan terms. Loans may be allowed. Withdrawals may be permitted for hardships. Annual IRS filings are required. RMDs must be withdrawn by April 1 of the year you reach age 73. In contrast to a SEP or SIMPLE IRA, if you are still working, you may wait until retirement to withdraw RMDs.
No one plan fits all. Owners need to weigh many factors. Companies with high employee turnover may not want immediate vesting. How simple is the plan to administer? Do you want the employees to contribute to the plan? Do you want to enable loans? Do employees want ability to make withdrawals?
Which plan is suitable for your firm? Contact your tax advisor at Urbach & Avraham, CPAs. We can review your company’s goals to evaluate which plan best meets your needs.